Автор работы: Пользователь скрыл имя, 06 Мая 2014 в 20:46, реферат
The US welcomed the end of the XXth century and beginning of the third Millennium as an influential leader of the world economy. The USA is one of the largest in area and population of countries of the world. In the country on an area of about 9.3 million square km lived at the beginning of 1993, more than 255 million. The level of development of productive forces, the scale of its economy, the U.S. is ahead of any other developed economy. The course of economic processes in the USA is one of the main generators of the progressive changes in the economy of the world. The situation in the US is a "barometer" for the world economy directly affects the motion cycle and changes in the economic situation in other countries, influences the structure of the international economic exchange. The economy of the USA and dedicated to this work.
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………..3 1. The main characteristic features of the US economy………………………………..4-10 2. The state's role in the U.S. economy………………………………………………………10-14 3. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………..15 4.Список литературы…………………………………………………………………………………….16 5.Приложение №1……………………………………………………………………………………17-18
The US welcomed the end of the XXth
century and beginning of the third Millennium as an influential leader
of the world economy. The USA is one of the largest in area and population
of countries of the world. In the country on an area of about 9.3 million
square km lived at the beginning of 1993, more than 255 million. The
level of development of productive forces, the scale of its economy,
the U.S. is ahead of any other developed economy. The course of economic
processes in the USA is one of the main generators of the progressive
changes in the economy of the world. The situation in the US is a "barometer"
for the world economy directly affects the motion cycle and changes
in the economic situation in other countries, influences the structure
of the international economic exchange. The economy of the USA and dedicated
to this work.
1. The main characteristic features
of the US economy
The US produced more than anyone in
the world of goods and services. The country's GDP at the end of 2004
amounted 6600 billion. in current prices. Closest partners are much
smaller than the US in this respect. GNP of Japan in current prices
and exchange rates amounted as of the same date almost 4,000 billion,
and Germany (in present borders) - more than 2,000 billion. In specific
terms, the U.S. position is comparable with Western European "common
market". The share of the United States has had in the late 90-ies
24% of the total GNP of the world, the share of EU - 25%, Japan 16 %.
A somewhat different picture emerges
when comparing indicators GNP per capita: it creates the impression
that the US is higher than in some developed countries. At the beginning
of 2003, rounded the indicators GNP per capita at current prices and
exchange rates, expressed in dollars, was as follows: in the USA - 23
thousand, Switzerland - 29, in Japan - 27, in Sweden - 24, in Germany
- 22 thousand USD. However, the indicators GNP per capita should be
treated with caution. This average value produced per year of product
per person in society. In dynamics it testifies the growth of well-being,
concrete application of which depends on the income distribution in
the society, the level of inflation, the structure and the quality of
goods and services and many other circumstances. Conducted by experts
of the National Science Foundation calculations give a picture of the
ratio of GDP per capita in the leading countries with the US level,
adopted in 1990 as 100 % : Canada - 93,9%, Japan - 80,7, Sweden -75,3,
Germany - 74,5, France - 73,7, Italy - 69,0 and South Korea was 38.1
The current level of the U.S. economy
is the result of long development and achieved due to the influence
of many factors. It is appropriate to remind about the main factors
in the historical context.
Beatie natural resources and favorable
natural conditions of the country. The bowels of the USA contain large
reserves of mineral resources: oil, natural gas, coal, non-ferrous and
precious metals. Most of them are conveniently located. The United States
accounts for 20% of world reserves of mineral resources. The climate
of the major agricultural regions in the country with their most fertile
soils is conducive to maintaining the high performance of agriculture.
Northern border of the United States (excluding Alaska) is held by geographical
Parallels, which in Russia are the Kuban, Stavropol region, Lower Volga
region. The location of the southern borders of the USA is in the Eastern
hemisphere southern Mediterranean.
Thanks to this, the country produces almost the whole range of agricultural
products: from rye to citrus. Modern U.S. agriculture is one of the
most science-intensive sectors of the economy with the world's highest
performance and efficiency.
IN the US was not pre-capitalist relations
(with the exception of slavery in the South), remnants of which would
have prevented the development of the productive forces. Vacant land,
the relatively high level of wages and other income drew in his time
in the USA millions of immigrants from other countries. On the psychological
type it were, in the vast majority of people firm of spirit, ready to
work and deprivations, socially active, and often with an adventurous
streak. The American nation today, compared with a melting pot of different
components of the alloy is formed, different from the original materials
with completely new properties.
Wasserauen consumer market stimulated
the development of mass production, which quickly became the heart of
economic growth, fostering the development of relevant basic industries
and influencing the formation of the progressive structure of the economy.
In some industries, mass production was created in the beginning of
the century. So in the years of the first world war, the United States
passed the one million mark in the production of passenger cars (1915
- 985,6 thousand, in 1916, over 1.5 million units).
Arasmeta the US economy is not inhibited
by wars. Military operations on their territory took place the last
time in the 60-ies of the XIX century during the civil war. On the contrary,
world war slowed down the development of other participating countries,
contributed to the rapid growth of the American economy, first and foremost,
advanced and basic industries. Thus, in 1939 1944 The US GDP increased
by 93%and industrial production - by 2.4 times. Of course, there were
large discrepancies in favour of military production, and the subsequent
conversion occurred with difficulties, in the situation of economic
crisis. But at the same time made in the war potential with its advanced
technical and other achievements in the following years became powerful
base for dynamic growth in civil proceedings that are ahead of other
countries often for decades.
Anergismus economic development promoted
initially established in the country, the freedom of economic activity,
protection and maintenance of the principles of competition. In the
late XIX century was the beginning of the antitrust legislation which
prohibits agreements on the division of markets and artificially support
the prices, the monopolization of the market by large companies, as
well as mergers, leading to undermining competition.
Tim of the most important factors of
economic development is perhaps uniquely American cult enterprise, ingrained
in the public consciousness. Profile sory the peculiarities of the psychology
of the American society is a burning desire for success and rejection
of losers. Vigorous competitive spirit of the society, high requirements
to everyone, force people to work hard, learn and improve their skills,
to aspire to growth of well-being and social status. The same forces
are forcing the industry is constantly looking for new ways to success,
to invest in the upgrade of production, to actively fight for customers
from domestic and foreign competitors.
The USA ranks first in the world by
volume of industrial production, which in 2002 amounted to about 2 trillion.
$ . The United States has the world's largest and highly effective agriculture.
Collection of all kinds of grain crops is in recent years, about 400
million tons per year, while about 50% of wheat and 60% of the maize
is exported. Dynamically developing service sector, which occupies an
important place in export activities in the country.
U.S. leadership in the world economy
is mainly their superiority over other countries in size and wealth
of the market, the degree of development of market structures, level
of scientific and technical potential, powerful and comprehensive system
of global economic relations with other countries through trade, investment
and banking capital.
Very high capacity of the domestic market
provides US a unique place in the world economy. The highest GDP in
the world means that the US annually spend more than any other country
on current consumption and investment. An important factor characterizing
consumer demand in the US, is a common high level of income relative
to other countries and a large layer of middle class oriented on high
standards of consumption. In the United States annually lays the construction
of an average of 1.5 million new homes, sold more than 10 million new
cars and many other durable goods.
U.S. industry consumes about 1/3 of
all raw materials extracted in the world. The country has the most capacious
in the world markets of machinery and equipment. It accounts for over
40% of the marketed in developed countries of engineering products.
With the most advanced engineering, USA simultaneously became the largest
importer of mechanical engineering products. The US takes more than
1/4 of the world's exports of machinery and equipment, conducting procurement
in almost all types of equipment.
In the United States by the beginning
of 90th years, a steady progressive structure of the economy in which
the predominant proportion belongs to the production of services. Their
share in GDP is more than 60%, the share of industrial production -
37% and 2.5% - agricultural products. Even more significant is the role
of services in employment: here at accounted for in the beginning of
90-ies more than 73% of the active population, the share of industry
fell 23% and about 3.5% - to the share of agriculture. The US has the
world's largest scientific-technical potential, which is in modern conditions
the decisive factor of dynamic development of economy and competitiveness
in the world economy. Annual appropriations for R & d in the United
States exceeds similar expenses great Britain, Germany, France and Japan
combined. In 1994, the total expenditure on R & d in the U.S. exceeded
180 billion. State appropriations amount to 44% of this amount, 51%
will allocate private corporations, the remaining 5% are own funds of
universities and colleges, and also receipts from state governments,
local authorities and non-profit institutions.
The United States continues to be the
largest manufacturer of high technology products, or as it is commonly
called, is a high technology products: their share in the world production
of these products is in the early 90-ies 36%, Japan - 29, Germany -
9,4, EU comprises 12 countries - 29 %.
Another area where Americans hold a
very strong position, is the processing of the accumulated body of knowledge
and the provision of information services. This factor plays a very
important role as fast and high quality information support has become
increasingly to define the work efficiency of the entire production
system. Currently in the United States contain 75% of data banks available
in developed countries. Because in Japan, as in Western Europe, there
is no equivalent system data banks, for a long time, them scientists,
engineers and businessmen will continue to draw knowledge mainly from
American sources. This increases their dependence on the US, affects
commercial and industrial strategy of consumers of information.
The core of scientific-technical potential
of the U.S. frames are highly qualified scientists and engineers engaged
in research and development. In the early 90-ies of the total number
of scientific workers in the United States exceeded 3 million. The United
States continues to lead the proportion of scientists and engineers
in the labour force. According to the data for 80 years in the USA on
10 thousand of the employment was 280 scientists and engineers in Japan
- 240, in Germany - 210, in the UK - 190, France - 165 people.
High educational level is characterized
by all of the contingent workforce in the US. In the early 90-ies of
38.7% of Americans aged 25 years and older had completed secondary education,
21,1% - higher and 17.3% - incomplete higher education. Only 11.6% of
adult Americans have less than a secondary, that is 8 or fewer years
of schooling. Powerful scientific-technical potential of the country
and the overall high level of education and professional training of
the Americans is the power factor for American corporations in their
competition with rivals in the domestic Mr. and world markets.
At the present stage of scientific-technical
revolution, the size and level of development of the domestic market
not only remains a powerful factor of global influence of the United
States, but also acquires a new meaning. In conditions of high degree
of security own raw material resources of the USA has received new benefits
through the introduction of resource-saving technologies. Thereby significantly
reduced U.S. dependence on external sources of supply of raw materials.
Moreover, in modern conditions dramatically increases the dependence
of suppliers of raw materials from the economy of the USA and other
developed countries. This applies to those kinds of raw materials, on
which the US economy in whole or in proximity of this is supplied by
The export of goods is comparatively
with other countries with a low share in the national production of
the USA. The export quota (ratio of exports to GNP) fluctuates around
indicators 8 9% of GDP. However, for certain sectors of the economy,
the value of exports is significantly higher. The US exports a quarter
of agricultural products, and some types of this indicator is more than
half. In industry, the U.S. has been closely associated with the external
market sector. This 7 of 21 branches in the manufacturing industry.
They account for almost 3/4 of the total export of industrial products.
Export markets ensure sales of about 1/4 products General machinery,
more than 1/5 - for engines and turbines, more than 2/5 - on aircraft.
Import plays a growing role in the economy
of the United States not only as a source of supply of the country with
the goods, but also as a factor in global competition, the impact of
which now covers virtually the entire US economy. By the beginning of
the 90-ies of the things that imports satisfied about 20% of U.S. textile,
steel and several other species important to agriculture production,
and for some goods - in much greater extent. For example, the import
share is 30% of the annual volume of sales of cars in the USA. While
19% of supplies from Japan, more than 4% - from the countries of Western
Europe and almost 4% - from South Korea, and the remaining 3% falling
on other suppliers. Up to 50% increased in recent years, the share of
imports in sales of machines and equipment, and in sales of household
electronics, footwear and other goods exceeded 80 %.
The largest trading partners and at
the same time, the main competitors of the USA on the world and domestic
markets are Germany and Japan. Germany sends US 8 9%, and Japan - 34
35% of its exports. A stable deficit in trade with these countries has
become a characteristic feature of the US economy. Access to the US
market became for these countries one of the main conditions of their
An important testimony to the leadership
of the USA in the world economy is moving technological balance of payments
of the country. It includes flows of payments and receipts on technology
transfer. This includes payments for the registration of patents, licenses,
trademark, design, copyright, industrial rights and samples, know-how,
payment for services in the field of management, etc.
Only 3 countries have permanent asset
to its technological balance. This is the USA, Switzerland and the United
Kingdom, and the USA are in the lead by a wide margin. Surplus on these
items in the balance of payments of the USA is lately about 7-8 billion.
The US remains the largest exporter
of high-tech products, they owned in 2000, 9% of the market of science-intensive
products outside the United States, i.e. the U.S. exports accounted
for 9% of the total world production of these products with the exception
of domestic consumption of the United States. Simultaneously, the USA
are the main market for the leading exporters of high technology products.
The share of high technology products in the value of total U.S. imports
is during these years, about 14 %.
A network of international production,
created by direct foreign investments, commonly called in the economic
literature of the second economy. Second, the US economy has a special
place in the world system. According to its industrial, scientific-technical
and financial potential it is far superior to similar sphere of management
of the nearest competitors the United States in this region: Western
Europe and Japan. Already in the mid 80-ies of the 20 thousand controlled
American foreign capital enterprises employed more than 6.5 million
workers and employees, which was equal to 1/4 of the total labor force
employed in enterprises owned by American multinationals. Sales of goods
and non-financial services overseas subsidiaries and controlled companies
corresponded to 1/3 of trade parent companies and bring about one third
of the profits. The backbone of the second economy in the form of foreign
industrial companies, which account for over 70% of sales of all foreign
subsidiaries. Total sales of the enterprises and firms of the second
economy correspond to 32% of GDP USA.
The sizes of the domestic credit market
are a powerful factor of influence of the USA on the world movement
of money resources. In the beginning of 90-s volume of credit resources
allocated to this market, exceeded 1,000 billion. each year, that considerably
exceeds the amount of the credit market any of the other developed countries.
In close collaboration money markets, their actual integration into
the world market of credit resources, events on the money market of
the USA, turns monetary policy significantly affect the overall state
of Affairs in the world economy and its currency and financial sphere.
In the basis of the internationalization
of US monetary policy lies international role of the dollar, which remains
the main reserve and settlement facility in the world currency-financial
system. Foreign reserves of the Central banks of Western countries 3/4
consist of dollars in dollars is more than half of calculations in world
trade, the dollar is a measure of the value of many of the most important
goods in the world market (particularly oil), in us dollars are carried
out almost all of the international economic association.
2. The state's role in the U.S.
America offers the system of free enterprise
to other countries as role models. The economic success of this country,
it seems, confirms the point of view according to which the economy
works best when the state allows companies and individuals themselves
to succeed - or fail depending on their merits in the open markets in
the conditions of free competition. But how free business in the American
system of free enterprise? The correct answer is "not really".
A complex web established by the state regulatory rules determines many
aspects of business activity. The state annually publishes the new regulatory
rules, occupying thousands of pages and often contains detailed guidance
as to what entrepreneurs can do and what is not.
Throughout American history, the policy
of non-interference periodically replaced requirements to ensure state
regulation of both types, and then the pendulum moved in the opposite
direction". In the last 25 years, as the liberals and the conservatives
have sought to reduce or eliminate some of the components of economic
regulation, while agreeing that the regulatory rules unfairly protects
companies from competition at the expense of consumers. However, political
leaders showed more acute disagreement about public regulation. Liberals
largely approved of state intervention, pursuing a variety of non-economic
objectives, and the conservatives have been inclined to consider the
interference harmful to competition and the efficiency of companies.
At the beginning of existence of the
United States government leaders were largely devoid of business regulation.
However, with the approach of the XX century the consolidation of the
industry of the USA is related to the appearance of very powerful corporations,
stimulated by government intervention in order to protect small businesses
and consumers. In 1890, Congress passed antitrust act Sherman, designed
to restore competition and free enterprise by dividing monopolies. In
1906, Congress passed the laws on the correct design of the labels on
the foods and medicines and of obligatory examination of the meat prior
to its sale. In 1913, the state has created a new Federal banking system
- the Federal reserve is to regulate the amount of money in circulation,
and some control over the banking activities.
The most important changes in the role
of the state occurred during the "New course" response Franklin
D. Roosevelt in the Great depression. During this period, the 30-ies
of the United States suffered a severe economic crisis and the massive
unemployment in the entire history of the country. Many Americans decided
that unbridled capitalism failed. They pinned their hopes on the state,
which was to lessen the hardships and what seemed self-destructive competition.
Roosevelt and Congress enacted many new laws that gave the state the
right to intervene in the economy. Among other things, these laws regulate
the sale of shares, recognized the right of workers to form trade unions,
established rules in the field of wages and hours of work, ensure payment
of unemployment benefits and old-age pensions, provided subsidies for
farmers, insurance of Bank deposits, creation of resource Management
of the basin Tennessee for a wide development of the region.
After the 30-ies were adopted many laws
and regulatory rules. By the beginning of 90th years the Congress has
created more than 100 Federal regulators, the impact of which stretches
from Commerce to communication, from nuclear energy to the safety of
the products, from medicine to employment. Among the latest regulatory
agencies include the office of Federal aviation authority, established
in 1966 and supervising fulfillment of airline security rules, as well
as national administration of traffic safety on highways (NHSTA ), established
in 1971 and controlling the safety of vehicles and their driving. Both
authorities are the Federal Ministry of transport.
Monopoly was among the first businesses,
which the US administration has attempted to regulate in the public
interest. Consolidation of small companies allowed some very large corporations
to avoid compliance with market discipline by setting prices or beating
competitors ' prices. Reform advocates argued that this practice ultimately
leads to infringement of interests of customers due to price increases
or limitation of choice. Antitrust Sherman act, passed in 1890, was
prohibited for private persons and companies to monopolize trade, and
also to unite and to collude with someone to restrict the freedom of
trade. At the beginning of the century the state has used this law to
separate the company of John D. Rockefeller "standard oil"
and other large companies, abused, as it was announced, its economic