American Cinema

Автор работы: Пользователь скрыл имя, 29 Октября 2013 в 07:35, доклад

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I’m a cinema goer. And also I like watching films on TV or video. But I think, that watching a good film is the best relaxation. It is thought-provoking and entertaining. Now a growing number of people prefer watching films on TV to attending cinemas. There are wonderful comedies, love stories, science fiction, horror films, detective stories, and historical films on. There’s a variety of films available today. It is difficult to live without cinema. One fact is clear for everyone: cinema makes our life better. Cinema helps us to forget different problems. When people watch films, they have a rest. Some films take people into another world. I think it is a pure world, where usual problems do not even exist.

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Chaplin, Charlie (Charles Spencer) (1889-1977) — an English actor and director who worked mainly in the United States in silent black-and-white comedy films. He created the beloved character, the Little Tramp, who wore a shabby black suit, derby hat and floppy shoes, and walked with the backs of his feet together and the toes pointing outwards. He always walked with a cane.

By 1918 Chaplin had forsaken short comedies for longer, independently made films, including "Shoulder Arms" (1918) and "The Kid" (1921). His major films, produced for United Artists (a film company which he helped to found in 1923), included "The Gold Rush" (1925), "The Circus" (1928), "City Lights" (1931) and "Modern Times" (1936), the latter two made as silent films with synchronized sound effects. Chaplin spoke on the screen for the first time in "The Great Dictator" (1940), which ridiculed Hitler and Mussolini. In "Monsieur Verdoux" (1947), which draws an acid analogy between warfare and business morality, the tramp disappeared entirely; the film provided further ammunition for a growing anti-Chaplin group who attacked his unconventional personal life and political views.

After 1952 Chaplin resided in Switzerland. He starred in his production "A King in New York" (1957), a sharp satire on contemporary America, and wrote and directed "A Countess from Hongkong" (1967). Chaplin made a triumphant return to the United States in 1972. He was given an Academy Award (an Oscar) for his part in "making motion pictures the art form of the century".

Coppola, Francis Ford (1939)- a film director, best known for the films "'The Godfather" and "Apocalypse Now".

Ford, John (1895-1973) - a film director, especially known for his Westerns including "Stagecoach", "How the West Was Won", etc.

Goldwin, Samuel (1882-1947) - a film producer, head of one of the companies, which later became MGM. Goldwyn is famous for saying odd things like "include me out".

Griffith, D. W. (1875-1948) - a film maker, known especially for his use of new photographic methods and for his epic silent films, such as "The Birth of the Nation" (1915) that required huge casts and enormous sets.

Griffith directed the first film, "The Adventures of Dollie", in 1908 and went on to make hundreds of pictures. With "The Birth of the Nation", he created a landmark in film industry. Also influential on the future of the film was "Intolerance" (1916). Griffith continued to make successful films throughout the 1920s. However, the Victorian sentiment that pervades his films was increasingly alien to the theme. He failed to make the transition to sound pictures.

Russel, Ken (1926-) — a film director, best known for documentary films and for the film "Women in Love".

Scorsese, Martin (1942—) — a film director whose works include "Taxi Driver", "The Last Temptation of Christ", etc.

Spielberg, Steven (1946—) — a film director who has made many very popular films, including "Jaws", "LT", "Raiders of the Lost Ark", "Star Wars", "Empire of the Sun", etc. His films are well known for being very fast moving and full of exciting action.

Zinneman, Frederick (1907- ) – an American film director, born in Austria, famous for the films such as "High Noon" and "The Day of Jackal".

Wilder Billy (1906-) – a film director whose films include "Sunset Boulevard" and "Some Like It Hot".


"The Birth of the Nation" — a dramatic silent film from 1915 about the American Civil War. "The Birth of the Nation" was directed by D. W. Griffith. The film, based on Thomas Dixon's novel "The Clansman", has been condemned for historical distortion and racial bias, but it became a landmark in the artistic development of motion pictures through its successful introduction of many now-standard film techniques.

"Planet of the Apes " - a film set in about imaginary future where monkeys rule the world.

''Psycho'' — a horror film directed by Alfred Hitchcock. It is especially known for a scene in which the character Mario (Janet Leigh) is stabbed in a shower by Norman Bates (Anthony Perkins).

"Rocky" — the first of a group of films (later ones were called "Rocky II", "Rock III", etc.), starring Sylvester Stallone as a determined boxer called Rocky. In each of the films the main character overcomes difficulties and win a fight against a strong opponent. The films are especially popular with young people.

"Star Wars " — a popular science-fiction film about the battle between the hero, Luke Skywalker, and Darth Vader, an evil person who wears a black mask over his face and comes from an evil empire. The film was directed by Steven Spielberg and is remembered for its many new exciting special effects.

"The Terminator" — a film with Arnold Schwarzenegger, set in Los Angeles in the near future in which a lot of people are killed. The film was followed by "Terminator II".

Actors and Actresses.

Astaire, Fred (1899—1987) — a dancer, singer and actor who made many films, often with his dancing partner, Ginger Rogers, and who was known for his stylishness.

Bassinger, Kim (1954—) — a film actress, known especially for playing attractive, sexy women.

Brando, Marlon (1924—) — an actor whose films include "A Streetcar Named Desire", "On the Waterfront", "The Godfather", etc.

Cooper, Gary (1901—1962) — an actor who often played strong, silent heroes, for example in the film "High Noon".

Costner, Kevin (1955—) — an actor and director whose films include "Dances with Wolves", "Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves", "JFK", etc.

Cruise, Tom (1962—) — an actor who has played leading film parts since the early 1980s, e.g. in "Top Gun" and "Cocktail". He is especially popular with women.

De Niro, Robert (1945—) — an actor, known especially for his part in the films "Taxi Driver" and "The Deer Hunter".

Dietrich, Marlene (1904—1992) — an American actress and nightclub performer, born in Germany, who usually played the part of an extremely sexually attractive woman. She is best remembered for her part in the film "Blue Angel".

Douglas, Kirk (1916—) — a film actor, known for playing the hero in films such as "Spartacus".

Douglas, Michael (1944—) — a film actor, son of Kirk Douglas, known for his part in the films "Fatal Attraction" and ''Romancing the Stone".

Eastwood, Clint (1930—) — a film actor and director, best known for playing parts as a gunfighter in Westerns and a modern city police officer. His characters almost always have their right on their side, and no fear.

Fonda, Henry (1905-1982) - an actor who made many films including "The Grapes of Wrath", "Twelve Angry Men", "On Golden Pond", etc.

Fonda, Jane (1937—) — an actress, daughter of Henry Fonda, known for her left-wing views, especially her support for Vietnam and her opposition to the American government during the Vietnam War. Her best-known films are "The China Syndrome" and, with her father, "On Golden Pond". She is also known for her interest in active physical exercise.

Fonda, Peter (1939—) — an actor and director, best known for his film "Easy Rider"; son of Henry Fonda.

Fox, Michael (1961-) -- an American actor, born in Canada, who has appeared in such films as "Back to the Future" (parts 1, 2, 3). He is very popular, especially with young girls.

Gable, Clark (1901-1960) - a film actor, best known for his role as Rhett Butler in "Gone with the Wind". He also appeared in many other Hollywood films, including "Mutiny on the Bounty", "The Misfits", etc.

Garbo, Greta (1905—1990) — an American film actress, born in Sweden. She was celebrated for her classic beauty and her portrayals of moody characters.

Having first attracted notice in the Swedish silent film “The Story of Gosta Berling” (1924), Garbo went to the United States in 1925 and became perhaps the most celebrated motion-picture actress of the time, a provocative, enigmatic embodiment of feminine beauty and mystery. “Flesh and the Devil” was her best-known silent film; among her notable talking pictures were “Anna Christie” and the comedy “Ninotchka”.

Greta Garbo became famous for her with drawn, aloof off-screen personality. In the movie “Grand Hotel”, she made the famous complaint, “I want to be alone.” Garbo retired from the movies in the early 1940s and lived as a recluse ever since.

Garland, Judy (1922-1969) - a film actress and singer who was most famous as the character of Dorothy in the film "The Wizard of Oz".

Gere, Richard (1949—) — an actor, known especially for his part in the films "American Gigolo", "An Officer and a Gentleman" and "Pretty Woman".

Goldberg, Whoopi (1949-) - a film actress who appeared in "The Color Purple" and "Ghost".

Grant, Cary (1904-1986) - an American actor, born in Britain, who is remembered especially for his comic films including ''The Philadelphia Story'' and ''Bringing Up Baby''.

Hoffman, Dustin (1937-) - a film actor, best known for his roles in the films "The Graduate", "Kramer vs. Kramer", "Midnight Cowboy", "The Rain Man", etc.

Kelly, Gene (1912-1996) - a film actor, dancer and director who appeared in many musicals of the 1940s and 1950s, including "Singing in the Rain", in which he sang and danced to a song with the same name.

Kelly, Grace (1928-1982) - a film actress, star of "High Noon" and "High Society" in the 1950s, who became Princess Grace of Monaco when she married Prince Rainier.

Marvin, Lee (1924—1987) — a film actor, known especially for playing strong, violent characters in films such as "The Dirty Dozen" and "Point Blank". He is also remembered for singing the song "I was born under a wandering star" in a very deep voice.

Mathau, Walter (1922—) — an actor in films and theater, known especially for his humorous roles, e.g. in "The Odd Couple".

Monroe, Marilyn (1926—1962) — a film actress whose real name was Norma Jean Baker, who starred in films during the middle of the 20th century and became the leading sex symbol of the 1950s.

Monroe first attracted notice in “The Asphalt Jungle”, thereafter she became a reigning screen siren. Her major films include “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes”, “The Seven Year Itch”, “Bus Stop” and “Some Like It Hot”.

While still in her thirties, she died of an overdose of sleeping pills.

To many people, Marilyn Monroe is a tragic symbol of the unhappiness that can accompany fame and glamor.

Murphy, Eddie (1961—) — an actor and comedian who first became known for his work on the television program “Saturday Night Live” but now is known mostly for his films, such as “Trading Places” and “Beverly Hills Cop”.

Newman, Paul (1925—) — an actor and director, lending male star of Hollywood films in the 1900s and 1970s and considered very attractive. His films include “Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid”, “The Sting”, “The Color of Money”, etc.

Nicholson, Jack (1937—) — an actor who started appearing in films in the l960s, such as “Easy Rider’’ which represented the feelings of young Americans, and has now become a big Hollywood star.

Pacino, Al (1940—) — an actor, known for the films such as “The Godfather” and “Scarface”.

Poitier, Sidney (1927—) — a black Amer ican film star and director, who was one of the first black actors to play serious parts rather than black stereotypes.

Pryor, Richard (1940-) - a comedian who has appeared in films and made several records. He is black and often makes jokes about situations involving black and white people together.

Redford, Robert (1937—) — a film actor and director who was in films such as ''Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid'',“The Sting” and “Out of Africa”. He is popular for his good looks as well as his acting.

Schwarzenegger, Arnold (1947—) —  an American actor, born in Austria, whose bodybuilding appearance won him the titles of Mr. Gcrriiaiiy and Mr. Universe. He is best known for his part in the film “The Terminator” in which he plays the hero.

Scott, George C. (1926—) — an actor, best known for his film parts, especially strong-willed characters, such as soldiers. He was the first actor to refuse an Oscar.

Streisand, Barbra (1942—) — a singer and actress who has performed on stage and in many successful film musicals, including “Hello, Dolly”, “The Way We Were”, “A Star is Born”, etc.

Taylor, Elizabeth (1932—) — an American film actress, born in Britain. She began making films at the age of ten, but is perhaps at least as well known for marriages, of which there have been eight (two of them to Richard Burton).

Temple, Shirley (1928—) — a film actress who was the child star of over 20 films in the 1930s, and in later life, as Shirley Temple Black, became a US ambassador. She was very popular when her films first appeared because of her style of singing, dancing and acting and her curly golden hair.

Valentino, Rudolph (1895—I926) — an American film actor, born in Italy. He was famous for playing the part of a lover in silent films, especially in “The Sheikh”. He is sometimes mentioned as a typical example of a good-looking romantic man. Valentino was a ballroom dancer and movie extra before reaching stardom in “Four Horsemen in the Apocalypse” (1921).

Soon he became the American women’s idea of masculinity, and his private life and loves were avidly reported in newspapers and magazines. His physique, his good looks and his physical grace were well exhibited in “The Sheikh” and “Monsieur Beaucaire”. Valentino’s most successful film is “Blood and Sand”, for here he seems able to bring some of his own personality to the portrayal of the matador, an opportunity his other, more stereotyped roles had thwarted. His untimely death created a national furor and reportedly drove some of his fans to suicide.

Wayne, John (1907-1979) - a film actor who often played "tough guys", particularly soldiers and cowboys.

Early in his career Wayne appeared as Hollywood's first singing cowboy. In 1939, in "Stagecoach", he achieved star status. In his 50-year career he appeared in more than 200 motion pictures. Some of his outstanding films are "Red River", "The Quiet Man", "The High and Mighty", "The Searchers", "True Grit", for which he won an Academy Award (1969), and "Shootist".

The characters John Wayne played, especially in Westerns ("Stagecoach", "True Grit"), were often honest, strong, independent and patriotic. Because he played these characters, John Wayne was thought to have those qualities himself and was an example of a good American. His old-fashioned patriotism made him something of a folk hero. In 1979 he was voted a Congressional gold medal; the inscription read, "John Wayne — American".

Williams, Robin (1952—) — an actor and comedian whose films include “Good Morning, Vietnam”, “Dead Poets Society”, etc.

Marilyn Monroe.

I think that the greatest actress not only of the USA, but of the whole world is Marilyn Monroe. So I ‘d like to tell some facts about her life.

Six queens come and go, easily crowned, easily forgotten. Yet Marilyn Monroe’s memory has remained very much alive. Admirers still cut her picture out of public library books, artists still paint her; even the young have become familiar with her name and her face by watching her films on television.

Death has changed the sexy blonde into a myth, a symbol of soft femininity and loveliness. Nowadays she is sometimes mistaken for a saintly martyr, which she certainly was not. But then, what was she? Those who knew her disagree so violently that it is difficult to see the real woman through the conflicting judgments of her friends. A simple little girl to her first husband, producer Mike Todd, she was also been described as the most unappreciated person in the world, the meanest woman in Hollywood, a tart, an enchanting child, an idiot, a wit, a great natural intelligence, a victim, and a clod ‘user’ of people From the very contradiction, one can guess that she was not simple. And obviously she had something special- not talent, perhaps, but a certain spark. It is well known that most of her problems had their roots in an unhappy childhood.

Marilyn had come into the world in a Los Angel’s hospital as Norma Jean Mortensen. Her mother, Gladys Monroe Mortensen, loved her child; but since she had to work, she left her in the hands of Ida and Albert Bolender, a respectable couple who boarded children on their farm. Norma Jean spent her first seven years with them. Her physical needs were well looked after, and Gladys visited faithfully every weekend. But when she had gone, there was not much warmth around the little girl. For Norma Jean, who was extremely sensitive, it was a lonely, distressing childhood. In 1933 Gladys bought a house and took her daughter home with her. But she was not there much and when she was out, Norma Jean had to stay with the elderly couple who rented part of the house. They were not bad people, only indifferent and more interested in drinking than in baby-sitting. When Norma Jean didn’t have to go to school, the couple dropped her at a nearly movie house in time for the first afternoon show. The little girl watched happily all day, and after the last matinee she walked home by herself. In her room, later, she would act out the whole story. In this way she developed a passion for acting that she never outgrew. After nine months of live together, Gladys had a mental collaps and was hospitalized. She appeared from time to time in her daughter’s life, but more as a burden than as a support. Many people took Norma Jean under their wings throughout the years. She looked so insecure, so defenseless, that men and women alike felt compelled to protect her.

However vague Norma Jean may have been about life in general, she never felt vague about the career she wanted to have. She wanted to be an actress. But the first three years of Marilyn’s career didn’t bring her more than a few very small parts. She kept herself alive by modeling. In 1950 Marilyn attracted attention in a small part in ‘The Asphalt Jungle’, which had been obtained for her by a powerful protector. Another protector, and the most influential by far, was the agent Johnny Hyde. Hyde was a powerful man in Hollywood when he met Marilyn. He was too wise to claim that she had talent; instead he insisted that such personality didn’t need to be talented. He succeeded in getting her a part in ‘All About Eve’, a film that was to prove lucky for all its actors. The font mail started piling up. The Hollywood columnists included the new blonde in their gossip columns. Soon ‘Life and Look’ magazines were honoring her with long articles, and one critic ventured to declare her ‘a forceful actress’. The studio, after having her co-star in several pictures, finally gave her a starring role in ‘Niagara’ in 1953. She had become the Fox’s biggest moneymaker.

Whenever she appeared she was cornered by excited admirers and photographers. But there was no private happiness behind the facade, and even her fame was not of the kind she would have liked. She resented her shallow roles; she resented the fact she had no voice in the choice of her scripts and that her old contract was keeping salary ridiculously low for a star. Hurt, she retaliated as best as she could. She arrived late on the set, unprepared and obviously indifferent to the hardships. She was imposing on the other actors and the technicians. Scenes had to be redone forty or fifty times because she could not remember a four-word sentence. If something displeased her, she locked herself in her dressing room, or failed to show up at all for days. Her behavior disgusted the people who worked with her, but her fans loved the radiant child-woman on the screen.

In 1961 after divorcing her next husband the famous American playwright Arthur Miller, Marilyn drifted back to the West Coast to open a new page in her life. On August 5, 1962 she was found dead in her house. She had made many attempts at suicide before. But it does not seem that she intended to hill herself that Saturday. When she retired for the night, she had plans for the next day. But early in the morning her housekeeper found her dead.

The world was shocked. In the words of one of her biographers: ‘She broke her heart trying to achieve something she didn’t have in her to accomplish.’

Walt Disney

Walt Disney was an American artist and film producer, who was famous for his animated cartoons. He was born on December 5, 1901 in Chicago, his father being Irish Canadian, his mother of German-American origin. In his early child hood he revealed a talent for drawing and an interest in photography. His teens he began an art course, but World War I broke out and he drove for the Red Cross in Europe. When he got back to America he met artist Ub Iwerks, ‘and they went into business together.

In 1923 he left with his brother for Hollywood Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks made a series of short cartoons but lost all their money, and for some years struggled against poverty. Luckily, Walt’s brother Roy gave him more to start up again. The first talking picture came out in 1927 and Disney realized that sound held the key to the future of films. He developed many techniques in producing cartoons.

His most famous characters are Mickey Mouse, Duck and Pluto. The first Mickey Mouse cartoon was drawn 1928. It was the first sound cartoon, which brought great success to its creator. In the early cartoons he was really horrible. He looked quite rat-like with long pointed nose and small eyes.

Later his face changed. His head got as big as his body or almost, his eyes got bigger, too. He got younger instead of older. That makes him cuter. Now it is an acceptable symbol for the USA. Donald Duck was created in 1936. Walt Disney took the biggest risk of his career and spent a fortune on a full-length cartoon. Finally, the first full-length cartoon feature film “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” was brought out in 1935, which the public paid millions of dollars to see The songs to the cartoon were written by Frank Churchill. After the Second World War Disney turned his attention to real — life nature studies and non-cartoon films with living actors.

In the 1950’s and 1960’s, Walt Disney began developing the family-entertainment parks, Disneyland and Disney World. The first Disneyland was opened in southern California in 1955. It is situated 27 miles south of Los Angeles, at Anaheim. Of all the show-places none is as famous as Disneyland. This superb kingdom of fantasy linked to technology was created by Walt Disney. The park is divided into six themes and there is so much to see and do in each that no one would attempt to see all of them in one visit. For extended visits, there are hotels nearby. In 1971 Disney World was opened in Florida.

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